Packets are de-capsulated

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Packets are de-capsulated






when they reach the end of the tunnel and make their way to their final destination (Stewart, 2013). Both tunnel endpoints must support the same tunnel protocol. Tunneling protocols work or run on one of the OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) layers, either the data link (layer two) or the network layer (layer three).There are four commonly used tunneling protocols: PPTP, IPsec, L2TP, and SSL. A packet with a private, non-routable IP address can be bundled with a globally unique IP address, extending the private network across the Internet.

In terms of security, VPN uses encryption to ensure privacy (Bacon et al., 2002). A virtual private network uses a tunneling mechanism to wrap or encapsulate encrypted data in a secure tunnel with open headers that can potentially traverse public networks. Data packets transmitted over the public network using this method cannot be read without the appropriate decryption keys.

In this way, the mechanism ensures that data is not modified or disclosed during transmission over the public network. Virtual private networks can also verify data integrity (Stewart, 2013).Verification usually takes the form of a message digest, which ensures that the data has not been altered or tampered with during the transmission process.

The default nature of virtual private networks is that they do not enforce or provide strong user authentication. This allows users to use simple usernames and passwords to access internal networks from different geographical locations or from different networks. However, VPNs support additional authentication such as tokens, smart cards, etc., 2002). VPN Remote Access VPN Remote Access is a user-to-network connection for a home or mobile user connecting to corporate networks from a remote location. Enables encrypted connections between remote users and the company’s private network.